Emmanuel E. Uye, Robert R. Enyelunekpo, Rashidat B. Roberts, Peter O. Olapegba


This study was conducted to examine the effects of workplace mobbing and perceived stress: moderating role of resilience stress among referees in South-west, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted to collect data from 351 referees. Data were collected using Mobbing Football Referee Scale, Resilience Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale while the collected data were analyzed using zero-order correlation, moderated-multiple regression and one-way ANOVA. Result indicated that perceived stress significantly correlated with workplace mobbing (r=0.126, p < 0.05) and resilience (r = 0.130, p < 0.05). Also, workplace mobbing significantly predicted perceived stress (R2 = 0.016, F (1, 348) = 5.625, p < 0.05). However, resilience did not significantly moderate the relationship between workplace mobbing and perceived stress                    (R2 = 0.005, F =1.360, p > 0.05). It is recommended that regular seminars and conferences should be organized to educate referees on the negative effects of workplace mobbing.


Workplace mobbing, Resilience, Perceived stress, Referees, South-west, Nigeria

Full Text:



Al-Haramlah, A. (2018). Psychological stress, burnout and its relationship with decision making among table tenis referees: A case study on the fourth championship of Saudi Universities. Sporttk: Revista Euroamericana de Ciencias del Deporte, 7(1): 103-110.

Anshel, M. H., Williams, L. R. T., & Williams, S. (2000). Examining evidence of coping style following acute stress in competitive sport. Journal of Social Psychology, 140, 751-773.

American Psychological Association (2014). The road to resilience. Washington, DC.

Biggs, A., Brough, P., & Drummond, S. (2017). Lazarus and Folkman’s

Psychological stress and coping theory. 10.1002/9781118993811.ch21.

Catalano, D., Chan, F., Wilson, L., Chiu, C. Y., & Muller, V. R. (2011). The buffering effect of resilience on depression among individuals with spinal cord injury: A structural equation model. Rehabilitation Psychology, 56, 200-211.

Cohen, S., Kamarck, T. & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 24(4), 385-396.

Cohen, S. & Williamson, G. M. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States. In S. Spacapan & S. Oskamp (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Health. Sage.

Devis, J. D., Dura, J.S. , & Molina, P (2021). The referees play to be insulted! An exploratory study of Spainish football referees’ experience of aggression, violence and coping. Frontier in Psychology 12, 656 457.

Devonish, D. (2013). Workplace mobbing, employee performance and behaviours: The mediating role of psychological well-being. Employee Relations, 35(6), 630-647.

Einarsen, S., & Nielsen, M. B. (2015). Workplace mobbing as an antecedent of mental health problems: a fiv-year prospective and representative study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 88, 131-142.

Einarsen, S., Skogstad, A., Rorvik, E., Lande, A. B., & Nielsen, M. B. (2018). Climate for conflict management, exposure to workplace mobbing and work engagement: A moderated mediation analysis. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29, 1-22.

Erdogan O. (2012). Examining the Relation between the Perception of Mobbing and Organizational Climate among Elementary School Teachers, Master’s Thesis, Institute of Social Sciences, Kastamonu University.

Field, T. (1996). Bully in sight: How to predict, resist, challenge and combat workplace bullying. Success Limited.

Finlay-Jones, A. L. (2014). Self-compassion and psychological health among psychologists .Doctoral dissertation, Curtin University.

Fishman, J. S. (2012). Psychological resilience, perceived stress, and stress reaction. Doctoral dissertation, Walden University.

Fraccaro, R. L. (2014). Bouncing back from mobbing: resilience and benefit-finding in victims of mobbing. Doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary.

Gaab, J., Rohleder, N., Nater, U.M. & Ehlert, U.(2005). Psychological determinants of the cortisol stress response: The role of anticipatory cognitive appraisal. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 599-610.

Garcia-Izquierdo, M., Rios-Risquez, M. I., Carrillo-Garcia, C., & Sabuco-Tebar, E. D. L. A. (2015). The moderating role of resilience in the relationship between academic burnout and the perception of psychological health in nursing students. Educational Psychology, 38, 1-13.

George, J. M., & Jones, G. R. (2012). Understanding and managing organizational behaviour (6th ed). Ogreti Publishing.

Grynderup, M.B., Nabe- Nielsen, K., Lange, T.,Conway, P.M.,Bonde, J.P.,Garde, A. H., et al.,(2017). The associations between workplace bullying , salivary cortical, and long-term sickness absence: A longitudinal study. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 710.

Hacicaferoglu, S. (2014). Indoor sports incurred by referee mobbing behaviour evaluation. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 14 (4), 626 – 631.

Hacicaferoglu, S. & Gundogdu, C. (2013). Determining the validity and the reliability of the mobbing scale for the football referees. International Journal of Science Culture & Sport, 1(4), 47-58.

Heinemann, P. P. (1972). Mobbing-Gruppvald bland barn ochvuxna. Stockholm: Nature & Kultur.

Hershcovis, M. S. (2011). Incivility, social undermining, mobbing oh my! A call to reconcile constructs within workplace aggression research. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 32, 499-519.

Hodliffe, M. (2014). The development and validation of the employee resilience scale: The conceptualization of a new model. Master’s Thesis, University of Canterbury.

Hurley, J., Hutchinson, M., Bradbury, J., & Browne, G. (2016). Nexus between preventive policy inadequate, workplace mobbing, and mental health: Qualitative findings from the experiences of Australian public sector employees. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 25, 12-18.

Laschinger, H. K. S, & Fida, R. (2014). A time-lagged analysis of the effect of authentic leadership on workplace mobbing, burnout, and occupational turnover intentions. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23, 739-753.

Laschinger, H. K. S., & Nosko, A. (2015). Exposure to workplace mobbing and post-traumatic stress disorder symptomology: The role of protective psychological resources. Journal of Nursing Management, 23, 252-262.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, coping and adaptation. Springer.

Leymann, H. (1996). The content and development of mobbing at work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(2), 165-184.

Lorenz, K. (1963) Das SogenannteBose, ZurNaturgeschichte der Aggression. VerlagDrBorotha-Schoeler, Vienna, Austria.

Maidaniuc-Chirila T (2015a). The mediation role of resilience on the relationship between workplace mobbing and Romanian employees’ physical strain, 48,120-133.

Maidaniuc-Chirila, T. (2015b). A multi-mediation model of the relationship between workplace mobbing, psychological resilience, coping strategies and employees’ strain: Insights for a training program’s efficiency. Romannian Journal of Human Resources Psychology, 3, 63-83.

Nabe-Nielsen, K., Grynderup, M.B., Conway, P.M.,Clausen, T., Bonde, J.P.,Barde, A.H., et al., (2017). The role of psychological stress reactions in the longitudinal relation between workplace bullying and turnover. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 59, 665-672.

Nielsen, M. B., & Einarsen, S. (2012). Outcomes of exposure to workplace mobbing: A meta-analytic review. Work & Stress, 26(4), 309-332.

Oginska-Bulik, N., & Kobylarczyk, M. (2016). Association between resiliency and posttraumatic growth in fire fighters: The role of stress appraisal. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 22, 40-48.

Philips, A. C. (2013). Perceived stress. In: Gellman M. D., Turner J. R. (eds). Encyclopaedia of Behavioural Medicine. Springer.

Rees, C. S., Breen, L. J., Cusack, L., & Hegney, D. (2015). Understanding individual resilience in the workplace: the international collaboration of workforce resilience model. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 73.

Rosander, M., Salin, D. & Blomerberg, S. (2022). The last resort: Workplace bullying and the consequences of changing jobs. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 1-12.

Salin, D. (2001). Prevalence and forms of mobbing among business professionals: A comparison of two different strategies for measuring mobbing. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10, 425-441.

Sauer, P. (2013). Does resilience mediate the effects of mobbing in nurses? Doctoral dissertation,the University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

Shen, X., Yang, Y. L., Wang, Y., Liu, L., Wang, S., & Wang, L. (2014). The association between occupational stress and depressive symptoms and the mediating role of psychological capital among Chinese university teachers: A cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry, 14, 329.

Taylor, A. H., & Daniel, J. V. (1987). Sources of stress in soccer officiating: an empirical study. In T. Reilly, A. Lees, K. Davids, & W. J. Murphy (Eds.), Science and football: Proceedings of the first world congress of science and football (pp. 538-544). Liverpool London: E. & F. N. Spon.

Vancampfort, D., Koyanagi, A., ward, P.B., Veronese, N., Carvalho, A.F., Solmi, M., Mugisha, J., Rosenbaum,S., Hert, M.,& Stubbs, B. (2017). Perceived stress and its relationship with chronic conditions and multi-morbidity among 229, 293 community dwelling adults in 44 low – and middle-income countries. American Journal of Epidemiology, 186(8), 1-30.

Van Heugten, K. (2010). Mobbing of social workers: Outcomes of a grounded study into impacts and interventions. British Journal of Social Work, 40(2), 638-655.

Verkuil, B., Atasayi, S., Molendijk, M. L., & Courvoisier, D. S. (2015). Workplace mobbing and mental health: A meta-analysis on cross-sectional and longitudinal data. PLOS ONE, 10(8), e0135225.

Vveinhardt, J., & Sroka, W. (2020). Workplace mobbing in Polish and Lithuanian organizations with regard to corporate responsibility. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public health, 17, 1-28.

Wagnild, G.M. and Young, H.M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the resilience scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165-178.

Weinberg, R. S., Richardson, P. A: (1990). Psychology of officiating. Champaign, ILL: Leisure Press.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Emmanuel E. Uye, Robert R. Enyelunekpo, Rashidat B. Roberts, Peter O. Olapegba







Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.