Amaka Juliet Moneke, Uche Victor Ebeze (PhD), Ekene Godfrey Okafor (PhD)


Given the perceived effects of poor menstrual hygiene on women and the society, this work examined the response to menstrual hygiene information among pre-menopausal women in South East, Nigeria. The study examined the response of the women to menstrual hygiene information and the extent to which they comply with such information. The study is anchored on the Uses and Gratifications theory, based on the premise that women who are exposed to menstrual hygiene information may use the messages to satisfy a variety of health needs and gratifications. The study utilized a mixed approach of both the quantitative and qualitative designs involving the Survey and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The multi stage probability sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used. The study revealed that many of the women (84.2%) were not influenced by menstrual hygiene information received, suggesting that some of the women are already practicing general body hygiene principles including menstrual hygiene. The study also found that many of the women do not perceive the messages on menstrual hygiene as sufficient to bring about a positive behaviour change (84.2%), implying that some cultural and socio-economic factors influence how they negotiate or accept the information. This work concludes that the attention they give to such information is relatively minimal. The study also concludes that many women do not pay sufficient attention to information on menstrual hygiene, perhaps owing several socio-cultural and environmental variations and these have continued to affect the health of the Nigerian society. The study recommends among others, that mothers and care givers should play an advisory role to female children by teaching them how to safely manage their menstrual cycles and that the women affairs’ ministries and establishments in various Federal and State levels should engage in more open advocacy of menstrual hygiene practices and assist women with information and materials on how to manage their menstrual cycles effectively.


Response, menstrual Information, menstrual hygiene, menstrual hygiene information

Full Text:



Acharya, A., Yadav K, & Baridalyne N. (2006) Reproductive tract infections/ sexually transmitted infections in rural Haryana: experiences from the family health awareness campaign. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2006;31(4):274–6.

Allotey, P. A., Diniz, S., DeJong, J., Delvaux, T., Gruskin, S., & Fonn, S. (2011). Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. Reproductive Health Matters, 19(38), 56–68.

Amatya P., Ghimire S, Callahan K.E, Baral B.K., Poudel K.C. (2018). Practice and lived experience of menstrual exiles (Chhaupadi) among adolescent girls in far western Nepal. PLoS One;13(12):e0208260.

Aniebue, P. Aniebue, & Nwankwo, T. (2010). “The impact of premenarcheal training on menstrual practices and hygiene of Nigerian school girls,” Pan African Medical Journal, vol. 2, no. 9, 2010.

Arumugam, B, Nagalingam, S., Varman P., Ravi, P., & Ganesan, R. (2014). Menstrual hygiene practices: Is it practically impractical? Int J Med Public Health. (2014) 4:472. doi: 10.4103/2230-8598.144120

Belayneh, Z, & Mekuriaw, B. (2019). Knowledge and menstrual hygiene practice among adolescent school girls in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2019 Nov 29;19(1):1595. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-7973-9. PMID: 31783741; PMCID: PMC6884885.

Bharadwaj, S., & Patkar, A. (2004). Menstrual hygiene and management in developing countries: Taking stock. Junction Social. default/files/Bharadwaj-2004-Menstrual.doc

Biddlecom, A., Awusabo-Asare, K., & Bankole, A. (2009). Role of parents in adolescent sexual activity and contraceptive use in four African countries. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 35(2), 72–81. https://doi. org/10.1363/3507209

Boakye, A., David, Y., Aladago, A., Beweleyir, J., Bawa, H., Marian, M., Salifu, F., & Asaarik, M. (2018). Assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice of menstrual hygiene management among junior high schools adolescent females in the Yendi Municipality in the Northern Region of Ghana. European Scientific Journal, 14(36), 1857–7881. Retrieved from

Boakye-Yiadom, A; Aladago, D. A.; Beweleyir, J.; Mohammed, H. B.; Salifu, M. F. & Asaarik, M. (2018). Assessing the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Menstrual Hygiene Management Among Junior High Schools Adolescent Females in the Yendi Municipality in the Northern Region of Ghana. European Scientific Journal December 2018 edition Vol.14, No.36 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431 Doi: 10.19044/esj.2018.v14n36p467 URL:

Bobhate P.S. & Shrivastava S.R. (2011). A cross sectional study of knowledge and practices about reproductive health among female adolescents in an urban slum of Mumbai. Journal of Family Reproductive Health. 2011; 5 (4):119–26.

Budhathoki S.S., Bhattachan M., Pokharel P.K., Bhadra M., & van Teijlingen E. (2017). Reusable sanitary towels: promoting menstrual hygiene in post-earthquake Nepal. Journal of Family Planning & Reproductive Health Care.43:157–9.

Chandra-Mouli, V., & Patel, S.V., (2017). Mapping the knowledge and understanding of menarche, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries. Reproductive Health, 14(1):30.

Chauhan S., Kumar, P., Marbaniang S.P., & Id,S.S. (2021) Examining the predictors of use of sanitary napkins among adolescent girls: A multi-level approach. PLoS ONE. (2021) 30:e0250788. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250788

Chothe V., Khubchandani J., Seabert D., Asalkar M., Rakshe S & Firke A, (2014). Students’ perceptions and doubts about menstruation in developing countries: A case study from India. Health Promotion Practice. 2014; 15(3):319–26. PMID: 24618653

Choudhary N. & Gupta, M.K.(2019). A comparative study of perception and practices regarding menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in urban and rural areas of Jodhpur district, Rajasthan. J Family Med Prim Care 2019;8:875-80.

Das P., Baker, K.K., & Dutta, A. (2015). Menstrual Hygiene Practices, WASH Access and the

Risk of Urogenital Infection in Women from Odisha, India. PLOS ONE. 2015;10(6):


Dasgupta, A. & Sarkar, M. (2008). Menstrual hygiene: how hygienic is the adolescent girl? Indian. Journal of Community Medicine, 2008; 33(2):77-80.

Deo, D. S. & Ghattargi, C. H. (2005). “Perceptions and practices regarding menstruation: a Comparative study in urban and rural adolescent girls,” Indian Journal of Community Medicine, vol. 30, pp. 33-34, 2005.

Fakhri M., Hamzehgardeshi Z., Hajikhani Golchin N.A., & Komili, A. (2012). Promoting menstrual health among persian adolescent girls from low socioeconomic backgrounds: A quasi-experimental study. BMC Public Health. (2012) 12:2–6. doi: 10.1186/1471- 2458-12-193

Goli S., Sharif N., Paul S. & Salve P.S. (2020). Geographical disparity and socio-demographic correlates of menstrual absorbent use in India: A cross-sectional study of girls aged 15– 24 years. Children and Youth Services Review. 2020; 117:105283.

Habtegiorgis Y., Sisay T., Kloos H., Malede A., Yalew M., & Arefaynie M. (2021). Menstrual hygiene practices among high school girls in urban areas in Northeastern Ethiopia: A neglected issue in water, sanitation, and hygiene research. PLoS ONE 16(6): e0248825. pone.0248825

Hennegan, J., Dolan, C., Wu, M. et al. (2016) Measuring the prevalence and impact of poor menstrual hygiene management: a quantitative survey of schoolgirls in rural Uganda. BMJ Open; (6)12. doi:10.1136/

Herrmann, M.A. & Rockoff, J.E. (2013). Do menstrual problems explain gender gaps in absenteeism and earnings? Evidence from the national health interview survey. Labour Econ. 2013, 24, 12–22.

House, S., Mahon, T., & Cavill, S. (2012). Menstrual Hygiene Matters; A Resource for Improving Menstrual Hygiene Around the World. First Edit, Tech. Rep., WaterAid, London UK:2012.

Ichino, A. & Moretti, E. (2009). Biological Gender Differences, Absenteeism, and the Earnings Gap. Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ. 2009, 1,183–218.

Karout, N. (2016). Knowledge and beliefs regarding menstruation among Saudi nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education Pract. (2016) 6:23–30. doi: 10.5430/jnep.v6n1p23

Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W., (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities.

Educational and Psychological Measurement. https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.

Lawan, U.M.; Nafisa, W. Y. & Aisha, B. M. (2010). Menstruation and Menstrual Hygiene amongst Adolescent School Girls in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health Sept. 2010 (Regular Issue); 14(3): 201-207).

Lee, B. (2015). Nepal Earthquake: Push For Immediate Relief Leaves Menstrual Hygiene Behind. International Business Times. Available from: earthquake-pushimmediate-relief-leaves-menstrual-hygiene-behind-1905601

McMahon, S. A., Winch, P. J., Caruso, B. A., Ogutu, E. A., Ochari, I. A., & Rheingans, R. D. (2011). The girl with her period is the one to hang her head: Reflections on menstrual management among schoolgirls in rural Kenya. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 11(1), 7. Retrieved from

Michael, J., Iqbal, Q., Haider, S., Khalid, A., Haque, N., Ishaq R, Saleem F, Hassali M.A. & Bashaar M. (2020) Knowledge and practice of adolescent females about menstruation and menstruation hygiene visiting a public healthcare institute of Quetta, Pakistan. BMC women's health. 2020;20(1):1-8.

Miiro, G.; Rutakumwa, R.; Nakiyingi-Miiro, J.; Nakuya, K.; Musoke, S.; Namakula, J.; Francis, S.; Torondel, B.; Gibson, L.J.;Ross, D.A. (2018). Menstrual health and school absenteeism among adolescent girls in Uganda (MENISCUS): A feasibility study.BMC Women’s Health 2018, 18, 1–13.

Mudey, A.B, Kesharwani, N., Mudey, G.A & Goyal, R.C. (2010) “A cross-sectional study on awareness regarding safe and hygienic practices amongst school going adolescent girls in rural area of Wardha district, India,” Global Journal of Health Science, (2)2 225–231.

Nehulkar P, Holambe V, Thakur N. (2016). Knowledge, attitude and practices of adolescent girls regarding menstruation : A community based cross sectional study. Int J Recent Trends Sci Technol. (2016) 17:266–9. Available at: /ScienceAndTechnology/Article/Volume17 Issue3/17_3_26.

Olayinka, O. O. & Akinyinka, O. O. (2004) Unmet Need for Sexuality Education among Adolescent Girls in Southwest Nigeria: A Qualitative Analysis. African Journal of Reproductive. Health. Dec 2004 ; 8 (3) : 27-37.

Oster, E. & Thornton, R. (2011). Menstruation, Sanitary Products, and School Attendance: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation. Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ. 2011, 3, 91–100.

Pandey A. (2014). challenges experienced by adolescent girls while menstruation in kathmandu, valley: A qualitative study. J Community Med Health Educ [Internet]. (2014) 04:41–5. doi: 10.4172/2161-0711.1000285

Rajanbir, K. Kanwaljit K. & Rajinder K. (2018). Menstrual Hygiene, Management, and Waste Disposal: Practices and Challenges Faced by Girls/Women of Developing Countries. Hindawi. Journal of Environmental and Public Health Volume 2018.

Rheinlander T, & Wachira M. (2015). Emerging Issue Brief: Menstrual Hygiene an Ancient - but

Ignored Global Health Problem of All Women. Global Health Minders; 2015. Available at :http://ghmmenstrualhygienebrief.

Shanbhag D, Shilpa R, D’Souza N, Josephine P, Singh J, & Goud BR (2012). Perceptions regarding menstruation and Practices during menstrual cycles among high school going adolescent girls in resource limited settings around Bangalore city, Karnataka, India. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health. Vol. 4 No. 7 (2012)

Siebert, F.S., Peterson, T. & Schramm, W. (1956) Four Theories of the Press. University of Illinois Press, Urbana III.

Mahon, T., & Fernandes, M., (2010) Menstrual hygiene in South Asia: a neglected issue for WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) programs, Journal of Gender & Development, 18 (1: Water), 99-113.

Sommer M. (2012). Menstrual hygiene Management in Humanitarian Emergencies: gaps and recommendations. Waterlines. 31(1&2):83–104.

Sommer, M. & Sahin, M (2013): Overcoming the Taboo: Advancing the Global Agenda for

Menstrual Hygiene Management for Girls. American Journal of Public Health 103:9. 1556-1559

Sommer, M., Ackatia-Armah, N., Connolly, S., & Smiles, D. (2015). A comparison of the menstruation and education experiences of girls in Tanzania, Ghana, Cambodia and Ethiopia. Compare, 45(4), 589–609.

Sommer M, Caruso BA, Sahin M, Calderon T, Cavill S, & Mahon T. (2016) A time for global action: addressing girls’ menstrual hygiene management needs in schools. PLoS Med. 2016; 13(2):e1001962. PMID: 26908274

Sommer M., Hirsch J.S., Nathanson C., & Parker R.G. (2015) Comfortably, Safely, and Without Shame: Defining Menstrual Hygiene Management as a Public Health Issue. Am J Public Health 105(7):1302–1311. pmid:25973831

Suneela G, Nandini S. & Ragini, S. (2001). Socio-cultural Aspects of Menstruation in an Urban Slum in Delhi, India. Reproductive Health Matters. 2001; 9 (17): 16-25.

Thakre S.B., Thakre S.S., Reddy M., Rathi N., Pathak K., & Ughade S. (2011). Menstrual hygiene: Knowledge and practice among adolescent school girls of Saoner, Nagpur District. Journal of Clinical Diagnostic Research. (2011) 5:1027–33. Available online at:

Thakur H., Aronsson A., Bansode S., Stalsby Lundborg C., Dalvie S. & Faxelid E. (2014). Knowledge, practices, and restrictions related to menstruation among young women from low socioeconomic community in Mumbai, India. Front Public Health 2:1–7. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00072

Thapa, S. & Aro, A.R. (2021) ‘Menstruation means impurity’: multilevel interventions are needed to break the menstrual taboo in Nepal. BMC Womens Health (2021) 1–5. doi: 10.1186/s12905-021-01231-6

Travers C.L. (2015). No one cares we’re bleeding: the place of menstrual management in humanitarian response [dissertation]. Uppsala: Uppsala Universitet.

Umeora O. U. & Egwuatu, V. E. (2008). “Menstruation in rural Igbo women of south east Nigeria: attitudes, beliefs and practices.,” African Journal of Reproductive Health, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 109–115, 2008.

UNICEF (2015). An Assessment of Menstrual Hygiene Management in Secondary Schools. Anambra, Katsina and Osun States. Nigeria: 2015

Wangmo D., Pelzom S. & Dem T. (2014). National Formative Study on Sanitation and Hygiene Behaviours. Bhutan. Bhutan: Ministry of Health (2014).

World Bank Group (2018). Menstrual hygiene management enables women and girls to › news › feature › 2018/05/25


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Amaka Juliet Moneke, Uche Victor Ebeze (PhD), Ekene Godfrey Okafor (PhD)



ISSN: 3027-0510 (Online)




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.