Nnana Okoi Ofem, Lazarus Bassey Abonor, Lilian Otu Ubi


This study explores the impact of women's participation in cooperative societies on their socio-economic empowerment in Calabar municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria. Three objectives were formulated, addressing the relationships between women's involvement in cooperatives and their educational level, employment status, and health. A descriptive survey research design was adopted, with a sample of 200 women drawn from the registered members of cooperative societies in Calabar Municipality. The study found significant positive relationships between women's participation in cooperative societies and their educational level, employment, and health status. The findings indicate that cooperative societies play a crucial role in promoting the socio-economic empowerment of women by enhancing educational attainment, employment opportunities, and health outcomes. The study recommends regular awareness campaigns through mass media to encourage women's active participation in cooperative societies for improved socio-economic well-being, emphasizing the transformative potential of cooperative activities in Calabar municipality.


Cooperative societies, educational level, employment, health status, socio-economic empowerment.

Full Text:



Aggarwal, S. (2005). Tackling Social and Economic Determinants of Health through Women Empowerment: The Self Employed Women Association (SEWA) Case Study. SEAROJ-42.

Alkali, R. A. (1991).The rise and development of cooperative movement in Bauchi State. The Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, 7(182).

Barut, Y. (2017). Women's cooperatives contributions to local region economy: Seferihisar agricultural cooperative development Model-Turkey. Management Studies, 5(2), 120-127.

Bisnath, S. & Elson, D. (2003). Women's empowerment revisited. UNIFEM (online) htlp:// html

Ekesionye, E. N. & Okolo, A, N. (2012). Women empowerment and participation in economic activities: Indispensable tools for self-reliance and development of Nigerian society. Educational Research and Review, 7(1), 10-18.

Hawkesworth, M. E. (1990). Beyond oppression: Feminist theory and political strategy. New York: Continuum.

Kabeer, N. (2000). The power to choose: Bangladesh women and labour market in London and Dhaka. Verso: London.

Kareem, R.O,, Arigbabu, Y.D,, Akintaro, J,A. & Badmus, M,A. (2012). The impact of Co-operative Society on Capital Formation (A Case Study of Temidere Co -Operative and Thrift- Society, Ijebu- Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria). Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, 12(11); 16-29.

Masabo, C. M. V. (2015). Women's Empowerment through Cooperatives: A Study from Women's Perspectives. A master's degree thesis submitted to Copenhagen Business School, Rwanda.

Mosedale, S. (2005). Assessing women's empowerment: Towards a conceptual framework. Journal of International Development, 17(2), 234-257.

Nkpoyen, F. & Awusa, E. B. (2019). Society (DMCS) and Sustainable Development Goals of Poverty Reduction and Hunger in Sub-Saharan Rural Communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria: Draft paper prepared in response to the UNTFSSE Call for Papers 2018,

Obetta, K. C. (2009). Women Empowerment As An Effective Strategy For Enhancing The Community Management Of Developmental Projects In Enugu State. International Journal of Research in Arts and Social Sciences, 1, 343-363.

Ofem, N. O. (2020). Social work and environmental protection. SWK 318. Department of Social Work, University of Calabar, Calabar.

Ofem, N. O., Okpa, J. T. & Joshua, I. (2021). Women empowerment and rural development in Nigeria. The Indian Journal of Social Work, 82(4), 465-468. Https://

Okoi, O. N. & Omang, T. A. (2018). Empirical analysis of poverty and well-being of rural dwellers in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. European Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 3(2), 126-138.

Pinto, V. (2016). The Role of women's co-operative societies in empowering rural women in India: An empirical study with reference to Karnataka State of India.

Prasad, A. &, Maheshwari, M. (2018). Role of cooperative societies for women empowerment in rural areas. IJARIIT, 355-360. Retrieved 8th November 2019 from

Schultz, T. W. (1961). Investment in Human Capital. The American Economic Review, 1(2), 1-17.

Sifa, C. B. (2016). Cooperatives Empowering Women and the Family. Expert Group Meeting Presentation, New York City, I6-17th November 2016.

Solomon, B. B. (1976). Black empowerment: social work in oppressed communities. New York: Columbia University Press.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Nnana Okoi Ofem, Lazarus Bassey Abonor, Lilian Otu Ubi



ISSN: 3027-0510 (Online)




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.