Emmanuel Ugonna Anyaogu, Lilian Chinazom Ajagu, Chibuike Julius Nwosu (PhD), Adaobi Olivia Okeke


National Health Insurance Scheme no doubt remains one of the health schemes that was created to alleviate the health challenges of not only the Nigerian public, but Nigerian civil servants. Sadly, anecdotal evidence shows irrespective of the advantageous nature of the scheme, most civil servants and Nigerians find it difficult to enroll in the scheme. What could the problem be? Are these supposed enrollees aware of the scheme at all? What attitude do they have towards the scheme? And to what extent do they make use of NHIS? The above forms the crux of this study. Anchored on the Planned Behaviour Theory, the researchers employed the survey research design for this study. The study adopted a random sampling technique, where the teaching and non-teaching staff members of Nnamdi Azikiwe University (NAU) were randomly selected as samples of the study. Data gathered were subjected to evaluation using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Result generated from the study showed that teaching and non-teaching staff members of NAU, Awka are significantly aware of the National Health Insurance Scheme. Again that they saw the scheme as not only credible, but accessible and as such, had positive attitude towards it. That significant number of teaching and non-teaching staff of NAU, do not make use of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). The study also indicated that various factors affect NAU teaching and non-teaching member’s use of the health insurance scheme; factors like: not being enrolled in NHIS program, poor hospital facilities, unavailability of time to enroll and ineffective services. It against the foregoing that the researchers make the following recommendations among others, that in order to improve awareness of the scheme, there is the need for targeted and sustained awareness campaign programmes to reach those who might still not be unacquainted with NHIS.


NHIS, awareness, use, exposure, attitude, health insurance, teaching staff

Full Text:



Abiodun, A. J. (2010). Patients' bill of rights in some developing countries. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 13(1), 114-118.

Abiola, L., Onyeleke, I., & Olowoselu, A. (2019). National Health Insurance Scheme and employees’ access to healthcare services in federal teaching hospital Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. International Journal of Healthcare Management, 13(4), 12-23.

Abraham, F., Fadeke, O., Mahmound, R., Salami, T., Adeoye, K., Alex, B., & Ebiye, I. (2018). Challenges to National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) enrollment in Nigeria: A comprehensive Study. Journal of Health Policy and Management, 12(3), 45-56.

Adebiyi O, Adeniji FO (2021). Factors affecting utilization of the National Health Insurance Scheme by Federal Civil Servants in Rivers State, Nigeria. Inquiry. 1(58), 1-10

Agba, A. M., Ushie, E. M., & Osuchukwu, N. C. (2010). National Health Insurance Scheme and employees' access to healthcare services in Cross River State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Human Social Science, 10 (7). doi:

Arigbosola, B., & Samina, M.K (2022). Barriers to enrolment in National Helath Insurance Scheme among informal sector workers in Nigeria. World Medical and Health Policy, 15(3), 200-209

Ahmed, H.M., Mitchell M., Hedt, B. (2020). National implementation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Policy constraints and strategies Health Policy 96 (2), 128-3

Aisha, U.P., & Umar, N.A. (2021). An impact assessment of National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) on employees’ productivity in Adamawa State, Nigeria International Journal of Economics Development Research, e 2(1), 1-15

Akinyemi, A. I., & Owopetu, A. V. (2021). National Health Insurance Scheme in Nigeria: The journey so far. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 56(5), 875-894.

Amoo, B. A. G., Adenekan, A. T., & Nagodo, H. U. (2017). National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) implementation in Nigeria: issues, challenges and way forward. CBN Bullion, 41(1), 15-33

Apeloko, O.D., & Olubunmi, A.V. (2017). National Health Insurance Scheme and employees’ access to healthcare services in Lagos State. Journal of Health Sciences, 5(3), 152-160.

Awojobi, O. (2019). A systematic review of the impact of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Nigeria. Research Journal of Health Science, 7(1), 2-9.

Cofie, P., De Allegri, M., Kouyate, B., & Sauerborn, R. (2018). Does health insurance status affect seeking care for malaria in rural Ghana? A count regression approach. Applied Economics, 45(34), 4732-4740.)

Conner, M. (2020). Health behaviors can be influenced through repeated exposure and behavior change ability. Journal of Health Psychology. Advance online publication. 2 (1) Retrieved from:

Donfouet, H.P.P., Agesa, G., Mutua, M.K. (2019). Trends of inequalities in childhood immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 months in Kenya, Ghana, and Côte d'Ivoire. BMC Public Health, 19 (1) doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-7309-9. PMID: 31337384; PMCID: PMC6651994.

Ejimokun, A. (2012). Effect of National Health Insurance Scheme on utilization of health services in Nigeria. Journal of Insurance and Financial Management, 1(2), 28-37.

Gielen, A. C., & Sleet, D. (2003). Application of behavior-change theories and methods to injury prevention. Epidemiologic Reviews, 25, 65-76.

Montano, D. E., & Kasprzyk, D. (2015). Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior and the integrated behavioral model. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Health behavior: Theory, research and practice (p. 95–124). Retrieved from:

Nariru, Z. (2018). Factors that would enhance access to affordable healthcare in developing countries Retrieved from:

National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) (2022). Benefit Packages. Retrieved from:

National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA). (2022). National health insurance scheme programs. Retrieved from:

Nwosu, C., Okeke, T. A., & Chiaghana, G. (2020). Healthcare coverage in Nigeria: A review of legislation and policies. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 8(1).

Okofor, I.J. (2019). Assessment of the implementation of National Health Insurance policy in Nigeria. The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies 7(6)

Onoka, C. A., Onwujekwe, O. E., Hanson, K., & Uzochukwu, B. S. (2011). Examining catastrophic health expenditures at variable thresholds using household consumption expenditure diaries. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 16(10), 1334-1341.

Osuchukwu, N.C., Onwujekwe, O.E., & Soludo, E. (2013). Ramifications of the National Health Insurance Scheme for achieving universal health coverage in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 16 (3), 319-323.

Sarkodie, S. A. (2021). Impact of national health insurance scheme on healthcare utilization in Ghana: A case study of Cape Coast metropolis. Cogent Social Sciences, 7(1), 19-30

Uzochukwu, B. S. C., Ughasoro, M. D., Etiaba, E., Okwuosa, C., Envuladu, E., & Onwujekwe, O. E. (2015). Health care financing in Nigeria: Implications for achieving universal health coverage. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 18(4), 437-444.

Uzochukwu, C.E., Nwosu, C.J., & Okeke, A.O. (2021). Audience exposure, awareness and compliance with COVID-19 pandemic messages in Nigeria: A study of residents of Anambra State. Journal of communication and media studies. 2(4), 56-78


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Emmanuel Ugonna Anyaogu, Lilian Chinazom Ajagu, Chibuike Julius Nwosu (PhD), Adaobi Olivia Okeke



ISSN: 3027-0510 (Online)




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.