Abideen Muhammed Abeeb


Nigeria has over the years have to deal with incessant conflict between Fulani herdsmen and farmers in the North-East and other parts of the country, which is basically tied to natural resources control, land for rearing of animals and for cultivation of crops. This has been an age long issue which is getting worst as a result of climate change and desertification, government has over the years made several attempts at resolving the issues but instead of it been resolved it is getting worse day by day as cases of herdsmen and farmers clashes are on the increase as being reported times without number. It is therefore important to take a second look at the issue so as to find better ways of resolving the conflict, Content analysis is the method adopted in the collection of data with heavy reliance on documents, journals articles, textbooks and internet materials. It is the belief of this paper that much needed to be done in term of finding durable solution to the conflict rather than sweeping it under the carpet for it to resurface in the nearby future.


Nigeria, Fulani herdsmen, Farmers, Conflict and Natural Resources Control

Full Text:



Agbiboa, Daniel Egiegba. 2013. “No Retreat, No Surrender: Understanding the Religious Terrorism of Boko Haram in Nigeria.”

Akpor-Robaro, M O M, and F O Lanre-Babalola. n.d. “Nomadic Fulani Herdsmen Turn Terrorists? Exploring The Situation And The Security Implications For Nigeria.”

Alubo, Okoh A. 2005. “Governmental Attitudes towards the Protection and Enforcement of Human Rights in Nigeria.” In . Centre for Legal Rights Advancement (CLERA).

Audu, Sunday Didam. 2014. “Freshwater Scarcity: A Threat to Peaceful Co-Existence between Farmers and Pastoralists in Northern Nigeria.” International Journal of Development and Sustainability 3 (1): 242–51.

Awoyelu, Festus, and Kayode Idowu. 2019. “Willingness to Pay for Peaceful Co-Existence between Crop Farmer and Sedentary Pastoralist’s Households in Oyo and Kwara States, Nigeria.” Scientific Papers: Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture & Rural Development 19 (1).

Bello, Alhassan Usman. 2013a. “Herdsmen and Farmers Conflicts in North-Eastern Nigeria: Causes, Repercussions and Resolutions.” Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 2 (5): 129.

———. 2013b. “Herdsmen and Farmers Conflicts in North-Eastern Nigeria: Causes, Repercussions and Resolutions.” Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, no. July 2013. https://doi.org/10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n5p129.

Dan-Azumi, Jake. 2011. “African Agriculture at Crossroads: Balancing the Needs of Increased Productivity and the Challenges of Sustainability. The Case of Fadama Agriculture in Semi-Arid North-Central Nigeria.” In Global Food Insecurity, 73–89. Springer.

———. 2018. “Socio-Economic Development and Insecurity in Nigeria: A Study of Boko Haram,” June.

Dauda, Mohammed. 2014. “The Effect of Boko Haram Crisis on Socioeconomic Activities in Yobe State.” The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention 1 (4).

Dimelu, Mabel Ukamaka, Edward Danjuma Salifu, and Edwin M Igbokwe. 2016. “Resource Use Conflict in Agrarian Communities, Management and Challenges: A Case of Farmer-Herdsmen Conflict in Kogi State, Nigeria.” Journal of Rural Studies 46: 147–54.

Eniola, P O, O A Adeleke, and O M Okanlawon. 2016. “Effect of Transhumance Pastoralism on Farming Activities among Crop Farmers in Oke-Ogun Area of Oyo State.” Nigerian Journal of Rural Sociology 16 (2202-2019–1103): 45–50.

Fiki, O C, and Bill Lee. 2004. “Conflict Generation, Conflict Management and Self-Organizing Capabilities in Drought-Prone Rural Communities in North-Eastern Nigeria: A Case Study.” Journal of Social Development in Africa 19 (2).

Gadzama, I U, N M Saddiq, T C Oduehie, and C J Dariya. 2018. “Appraisal of Rural Banditry in" Kamuku" Forest in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria.” Nigerian Journal of Rural Sociology 18 (2202-2019–1205): 42–49.

Imo, Chukwuechefulam Kingsley. 2017. “The Demographic Implications of Nomadic Herdsmen and Farmers Clashes in Nigeria.” International Journal of Development and Management Review 12 (1): 45–58.

Isah Mohammed Abbass. 2014. “No Retreat No Surrender Conflict for Survival Between Fulani Pastoralists and Farmers in Northern Nigeria.” European Scientific Journal 8 (1): 331–46. https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2012.v8n1p%p.

Lederach, John Paul. 1995. “Conflict Transformation in Protracted Internal Conflicts: The Case for a Comprehensive Framework.” Conflict Transformation, 201–22.

———. 2012. “The Origins and Evolution of Infrastructures for Peace: A Personal Reflection.” Journal of Peacebuilding & Development 7 (3): 8–13.

Moritz, Mark. 2006. “The Politics of Permanent Conflict: Farmer-Herder Conflicts in Northern Cameroon.” Canadian Journal of African Studies/La Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines 40 (1): 101–26.

Muhammed, Isa Abdullahi, and Lawal Abdullahi Oladimeji. 2017. “State, Governance And Insecurity In Nigeria: A Reflection On The Crisis Of Boko Haram Insurgency In The North-East.” International Journal of Innovative Researchand Advanced Studies 4 (4): 44–50.

Nzeh, EMEKA. 2015. “The Effects of Migration by Nomadic Farmers in the Livelihoods of Rural Crop Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria.” Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: D Agriculture and Veterinary, 21–28.

Obioha, Emeka E. 2009. “Climate Variability, Environment Change and Food Security Nexus in Nigeria.” Journal of Human Ecology 26 (2): 107–21.

Odoh, SI, and CF Chigozie. 2012. “Empirical Examination of the Worsening Incidence of Conflict Between Fulani Herdsmen and Farmers in Northern Nigeria.” Arabianjbmr.Com 2 (1): 110–24. http://arabianjbmr.com/pdfs/OM_VOL_2_(1)/7.pdf.

Ofem, O. 2014. “Livelihood and Conflict Dimension among Crop Farmers and Fulani Herdsmen in Yakurr Region of Cross River State.” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 5 (8): 512–19. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n8p512.

Okoli, Al Chukwuma, and Philip Iortyer. 2014. “Terrorism and Humanitarian Crisis in Nigeria: Insights from Boko Haram Insurgency.” Global Journal of Human Social Science-GJHSS-F 14 (1).

Olabode, Abiodun, Lanre Ajibade, and Olabode A D Ajibade. 2010. “ENVIRONMENT INDUCED CONFLICT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT A CASE OF FULANI-FARMERS’ CONFLICT IN OKE-ERO LGAs, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA.” Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa 12 (5): 259–73. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308078946.

Onigu-Otite, Kenneth, and Isaac Olawale Albert. 1999. Community Conflicts in Nigeria: Management, Resolution and Transformation. Spectrum Books Limited.

Ramsbotham, Oliver, Hugh Miall, and Tom Woodhouse. 2011. Contemporary Conflict Resolution. Polity.

Ubhenin, Oscar Edoror. 2012. “Climate Change and Violent Conflicts in Nigeria: Human Needs and Relative Deprivation Theories.” In Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict, 529–42. Springer.

Usman Bello, Alhassan. 2013. “Herdsmen and Farmers Conflicts in North-Eastern Nigeria: Causes, Repercussions and Resolutions.” Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, July. https://doi.org/10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n5p129.

Waters-Bayer, Ann, and Wolfgang Bayer. 1994. “Coming to Terms: Interactions between Immigrant Fulani Cattle-Keepers and Indigenous Farmers in Nigeria’s Subhumid Zone (Relations Entre Éleveurs Immigrants Peuls et Paysans Autochtones Dans La Zone Subhumide Du Nigeria).” Cahiers d’Études Africaines 34 (133/135): 213–29. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4392520.

Yekinni, O T, R T Adeniyi, and S A Adebisi. 2017. “Crop Farmers’Adaptation Strategies To Mitigate Conflicts With Nomads in Oyo State.” Nigerian Journal of Rural Sociology Vol 17 (1).


  • There are currently no refbacks.



Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.